B) Ballad meter tends to be 8-8 or 8-6 with some variations and a strong musical quality.
C) Ballad rhyme schemes are based on the quatrain, again with variations. Basic forms are
D) Ballad authorship is unknown for older ballads which were mainly oral literature as opposed to the known authors of modern ballads who publish poetry or record songs.
Canterbury Tales Characters
All characters represent the middle class.
These characters represent the soldiers and officers of the law.
KNIGHT: fought in many foreign wars but was still mild and respectful in manners to all--the image of chivalry
SQUIRE: the knight's son who is also a part of knightly activities but is not as serious as his father; tends to wear "fashionable" clothes
YEOMAN: traveling forester with numerous weapons, knew all the ways of the woods
MANCIPLE: works for lawyers and tries to steal all he can from them and others with his sharp wit and precise ways
SERGEANT OF LAW: (or lawyer) who makes a great show of his learning with his "wise sayings" and knowledge of the justice system
SHIPMAN: skilled sailing captain and also a smuggler with a special taste for wine and making prisoners "walk the plank"
These characters represent the church.
PRIORESS (head nun): religious figure who seems too delicate and cultivated for this trip; she's very concerned about her appearance
MONK: a large, aggressive man who would rather be hunting or eating than reading books or performing church services
FRIAR HERBERT: religious figure with good humor who flirts with the opposite sex and desires greater wealth and pleasure in his life
SECOND NUN: accompanies the prioress, and brings three priests with her as attendants
PARDONER: bulb-eyed, goat-voiced, relic-carrying traveler from Rome who's friendly with the Summoner
OXFORD CLERIC: religious figure whose life was spent studying his books he's thin, unemployed, and poor
PARSON: religious figure who would help anyone at any time, regardless of social class, and teaches by example
SUMMONER: a disgusting man who drinks a lot and rides with the Pardoner; his job is to deliver messages from head church officials
These characters represent the merchants, craftsmen, and skilled specialists.
DOCTER: an expert in his profession as a master of knowledge of the humors, but more interested in gold than a patient's health
MILLER: large, bold bagpipe-playing, brash thief of farmers with a thumb of gold" that he uses to steal grain from poor farmers
REEVE: a sharp-dealing manager-type who got rich skimming off of others' business
MERCHANT: a tight-lipped man of business with motley dress; he's an expert at currency exchange and money lending
FRANKLIN: a rich landlord who always keeps the best provisions for his table; had been a member of parliament
WOMAN OF BATH: named Alice, a slightly deaf cloth maker with a great deal of experience with the opposite sex due to numerous husbands
COOK: named Roger , a "rollicking" fellow with a great sense of taste but unfortunately had a painful ulcer on his knee
PLOWMAN: the honest and hard-working brother of the Parson, who lives a good life according to the rules of the church
HABERDASHER----CARPENTER---DYER (no details)
TAPESTRY MAKER: all are members of guilds, each is of important rank within his profession and is respected
Multiple Choice Topics:
5 questions from Beowulf dealing with.....
4 questions from "The Seafarer" & "The Wanderer"
7 questions from the Folk Ballads
4 questions on Bede's History of the English Church and People
4 questions on The Canterbury Tales "Prologue"
2 questions on the "Pardoner's Tale"
2 questions on the "Woman of Bath's Tale"
4 questions on Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
4 questions on Morte D'Arthur
2 questions on Everyman
2 questions on The Diary of Margery Kempe
Essay Question Topics:
History of the British Monarchy
Third son of William I
Youngest son of William I
Third son of Stephen, Count of Blois
Eldest surviving son of Henry II
Youngest son of Henry II
Eldest son of John
Eldest son of Henry III
Eldest surviving son of Edward I
Eldest son of Edward II
*Grandson of Edward III*
Edlest Son of Henry IV
Only son of Henry V
1422--1461 & 1470--1471
Eldest son of Edward IV
Younger brother of Edward IV
Only surviving son of Henry VII
Son of Henry VIII by Jane Seymour
Daughter of Henry VIII by Katharine
Daughter of Henry VIII by Anne Boleyn
B) English style sonnets have three quatrains (sections of four lines) and one couplet (two lines). There are two leading rhyme schemes for the English style:
C) Italian sonnets (Petrarchian as introduced by Thomas Wyatt) are constructed of two sections: an octave (eight lines with a rhyme scheme of A B B A A B B A) and a sestet (six lines with a variable rhyme scheme using C D E).
D) A sonnet sequence or cycle (introduced to England by Phillip Sidney) is a group of sonnets that deal with a central topic or subject.
**NOTE** Even though the sonnet was the most important poetic format during the English Renaissance, Spenser's "The Faerie Queen" (an epic narrative) was the most important poetic work of the era.
Multiple Choice Topics:
Essay Question Topics:
1. important writers of the Restoration Period
2. the Glorious Revolution of 1688
3. writing styles of the Restoration Period (x2)
4. meanings behind Pope's Epigrams
5. theme of Pope's "Essay on Man"
6. Pope's other satirical works
7. John Dryden's literary biography
8. main idea of Dryden's "Essay on Dramatic Posey"
9. Aphra Behn's biography
10. main idea of Behn's "On Her Loving Two Equally"
11. writing style of Swift's "A Modest Proposal"
12. "tone" of Swift's "A Modest Proposal"
13. reasons for 18th. century being the age of prose
14. writer's purpose of Swift's Gulliver's Travels
15. main idea of the four books of Swift's Gulliver's Travels
16. central idea of Montagu's "Letter to Her Daughter"
17. the importance of The Spectator in its time
18. main idea of Steele's "Sir Roger de Coverly"
19. main idea of Addison's "Country Manners"
20. Samuel Pepys's literary biography
21. main idea of Pepys's "The London Fire"
22. main idea of Pepys's "The Coronation of Charles II"
23. reason for the decline of English theater
24. Daniel Defoe's biography
25. content of Defoe's Journel of the Plague Year
26. formation of Whig & Tory parties
27. mood and theme of Gray's "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard"
28. Samuel Johnson's biography
29. history behind Samuel Johnson's Dictionary
30. construction of Samuel Johnson's Dictionary
31. the main idea of Johnson's "Letter to Lord Chesterfield"
32. Johnson's self-defense in the "Preface to the Dictionary"
33. Boswell's plan in writing the Life of Samuel Johnson
34. distinction between Pre-Romantics and Romantics
1. background on the rule of George I of Hanover
2. the purpose of The Union Act of 1707
3. British social or political changes in the 18th. century
4. the central themes of the Romantic movement
5. the role of the Jacobite "Pretenders" in the 17th. and 18th. centuries
6. the main ideas of Wollstonecraft's "A Vindication of the Rights of Women"
7. reasons why Wollstonecraft's early efforts in feminism were revolutionary
8. Wollstonecraft's stated opinions from "A Vindication of the Rights of Women"
9. Wollstonecraft's views on marriage
10. William Blake's biography
11. differing views Blake's "Holy Thursday" poems
12. the key issue being examined in Blake's "The Poison Tree"
13. the key issue of Blake's "The Lamb" and "The Tyger" poems
14. Robert Burns's biography
15. the mood of Burns's "John Anderson, My Jo"
16. the overall conclusion of Burns's "To a Mouse,"
17. William Wordsworth's biography
18. the main focus William Wordsworth's "The World Is Too Much with Us"
19. main ideas William Wordsworth's "It Is Beauteous Evening"
20. the "child" philosophy of William Wordsworth's "My Heart Leaps up"
21. the "real" setting of William Wordsworth's ".....Tintern Abbey"
22. the spiritual theme of William Wordsworth's ".....Tintern Abbey"
23. main subjects of Dorothy Wordsworth's journal entries
24. Samuel Coleridge's biography
25. the key concepts in Coleridge's "Kubla Kahn"
26. parts of the frame story in Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner"
27. plot details from Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner"
28. the primary lesson in Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner"
29. the biography of Lord Byron
30. details about the entire Childe Harold's Pilgrimage by Byron
31. central subject of Byron's "She Walks in Beauty"
32. the biography of Percy Shelley
33. the possible subjects of Percy Shelley's "Ozymandias"
34. key concepts of Percy Shelley's "Ode to the West Wind"
35. the contents of Percy Shelley's "To a Skylark"
36. main connection between Shelley's "To a Skylark" and "Ode to the West Wind"
37. the biography of Mary Shelley
38. the background behind Mary Shelley's Frankenstein
39. the biography of John Keats
40. the plot of Keats's "La Belle Dame sans Merci"
41. the mystery at the end of Keats's "Ode to a Nightengale"
42. the conclusion of Keats's "When I Have Fears That I May Cease to Be"
43. the subjects of analysis in Keats's "Ode on a Grecian Urn"
44. the main idea of Keats's "To Autumn"
**45. matching biographical details for the ten authors**